Hollow and Flat Sheet Membranes

Hollow Fiber Membranes (HFM’s) are a class of artificial membranes containing a semi-permeable barrier in the form of a hollow fiber. Originally developed in the 1960’s for reverse osmosis applications, hollow fiber membranes have since become prevalent in water treatment, desalination, cell culture, medicine, and tissue engineering. Most commercial hollow fiber membranes are packed into cartridges which can be used for a variety of liquid and gaseous separations. Flat Sheet polymeric membranes are also ideal for any process requiring the testing of a variety of separation techniques. The flat sheet polymeric membranes are available in different shapes including rectangles, squares, or pre-cut to fit any process. PMI manufactures Hollow Fibre Spinning Apparatus and Flat Sheet Membrane Casting Machines for lab scale fabrication of membranes. PMI is also a pioneer in porosity measurement instruments for pore characterization of membranes.

Related Products

Capillary Flow Porometers , Liquid Liquid Porometers , Hollow Fibre Spinning Machine , Flat Sheet Casting Machine

Related Publications

Characterization of Water

Liquid-liquid porometer: H. Shi, F. Liu, and L Xue, “Fabrication and characterization of antibacterial PVDF hollow fibre membrane by doping Ag-loaded zeolites”, J. Membr. Sci., 437, 205 – 215 (2013)

Capillary flow porometer: A. Jena and K. Gupta, “An innovative technique for pore structure analysis of fuel cell and battery components using flow porometry”, 96, 214 – 219 (2001) D. Li, M. W. Frey, and Y. L. Joo, “Characterization of nanofibrous membranes with capillary flow porometry”, J. Membr. Sci., 286, 104 – 114 (2006)

Water Desalination

Desalination or desalinization is a process that removes minerals from saline water. More generally, desalination may also refer to the removal of salts and minerals, as in soil desalination, which also happens to be a major issue for agricultural production. PMI Porosity characterization instruments have been installed at various research centres working in the area of Water Desalination.

Related Products

Capillary Flow Porometers , Liquid Liquid Porometers

Related Publications

Liquid-liquid porometer: H. Shi, F. Liu, and L Xue, “Fabrication and characterization of antibacterial PVDF hollow fibre membrane by doping Ag-loaded zeolites”, J. Membr. Sci., 437, 205 – 215 (2013)

Tissue Engineering

Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. While it was once categorized as a sub-field of biomaterials, having grown in scope and importance it can be considered as a field in its own right.

While most definitions of tissue engineering cover a broad range of applications, in practice the term is closely associated with applications that repair or replace portions of or whole tissues (i.e., bone, cartilage, blood vessels, bladder, skin, muscle etc.). Often, the tissues involved require certain mechanical and structural properties for proper functioning. The term has also been applied to efforts to perform specific biochemical functions using cells within an artificially-created support system (e.g. an artificial pancreas, or a bio artificial liver). The term regenerative medicine is often used synonymously with tissue engineering, although those involved inregenerative medicine place more emphasis on the use of stem cells or progenitor cells to produce tissues.

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Liquid Extrusion Porosimeter

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Biotechnology R&D Promotional Material Biotechnology R&D Slideshow Biotechnology R&D Performance Enhancement & Product Development

Nanofiltration & Ultrafiltration

Nanofiltration is a relatively recent membrane filtration process used most often with low total dissolved solids water such as surface water and fresh groundwater, with the purpose of softening (polyvalent cation removal) and removal of disinfection by-product precursors such as natural organic matter and synthetic organic matter. Nanofiltration is also becoming more widely used in food processing applications such as dairy, for simultaneous concentration and partial (monovalent ion) demineralisation. Whereas Ultrafiltration (UF) is a variety of membrane filtration in which forces like pressure or concentration gradients lead to a separation through a semipermeable membrane. Suspended solids and solutes of high molecular weight are retained in the so-called retentate, while water and low molecular weight solutes pass through the membrane in the permeate. This separation process is used in industry and research for purifying and concentrating macromolecular (103 - 106 Da) solutions, especially protein solutions. Ultrafiltration is not fundamentally different from microfiltration. Both of these separate based on size exclusion or particle capture. It is fundamentally different from membrane gas separation, which separate based on different amounts of absorption and different rates of diffusion. Ultrafiltration membranes are defined by the molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of the membrane used. Ultrafiltration is applied in cross-flow or dead-end mode. PMI’s Liquid Liquid Porometer provides pore size measurement for as low as 2nm , while the Capillary Flow Porometers provide pore size measurement capability as low as 13 nm and upto 500 microns on the higher side.

Related Products

Capillary Flow Porometers , Liquid Liquid Porometers

Related Publications

Liquid-liquid porometer: H. Shi, F. Liu, and L Xue, “Fabrication and characterization of antibacterial PVDF hollow fibre membrane by doping Ag-loaded zeolites”, J. Membr. Sci., 437, 205 – 215 (2013)

Pharmaceuticals

The pharmaceutical industry develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceuticals for use as medications. Pharmaceutical companies may deal in generic or brand medications and medical devices. They are subject to a variety of laws and regulations that govern the patenting, testing, safety, efficacy and marketing of drugs. Surface area , pore size distribution, absolute density of various powder and granules materials is an important parameter for the drug development process.

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BET Sorptometer, Mercury Intrusion Porosimeter, Pycnometer

Oil and Gas

Petroleum consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other organic compounds. The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure.

Petroleum has mostly been recovered by oil drilling. This comes after the studies of structural geology (at the reservoir scale), sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterization (mainly in terms of the porosity and permeability of geologic reservoir structures). It is refined and separated, most easily by distillation, into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline (petrol) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals. Permeability and Porosity of rock cores is important to part of the well development, these parameters also help researchers identify sites with high rate of recovery of oil and gas. PMI manufactures various products for porosity and permeability measurement for both conventional and unconventional sources.

Related Products

Rock Core Tester, Pulse Decay Permeameter, Gas Permeameter, Mercury Intrusion Porosimeter, Liquid Permeameter, Confining Pressure Permeameters, Core Saturators, Capillary Pressure Cells

Paper & Pulp

Porosity in paper is a measure of the extent to which a paper surface will allow the penetration of a gas or liquid, such as air or ink, through its surface. The nature of paper is such that the bonding of the paper fibers produces many tiny air passages throughout the paper, which can either be completely submerged in the paper, extend from the surface down into the interior of the paper, or penetrate completely through the sheet. The porosity of a paper is a function of the various stages of the papermaking process.

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Burst Strength Tester, Air Permeameter, Capillary Flow Porometers

Ceramics

Ceramics have interesting design properties. They have excellent mechanical properties in compression, but are terrible when tensile loads are applied to them, and are typically very brittle. Porous Ceramics for use in filtration, diffusion, separation and purification applications. Uniquely porous, this ceramic material contains open-cell structure that allows the free flow of liquid or gas to an opposing structure allowing fluidic communication. Porous ceramic can be used in place of metals, plastics or fibers providing equal or higher levels of performance and extending the useful life under harsh conditions.

Porous Ceramics have a wide range of uses in manufacturing across industries such as medical, mining, oil & gas exploration,ll alternative energy, emissions control, metal refinement, chemical processing, pharmaceutical, printing, wine making and other industries. Specific applications include instrumentation, analytical sensors, semiconductor components, alternative energy assemblies, battery separators, emissions monitoring sensors among many others. As with most filtration methods, water is carefully introduced to one side of the filter, which acts to block the passage of anything larger than the pore size. Typically bacteria, protozoa, and microbial cysts are removed but the filters are not effective against viruses since they are small enough to pass through to the other "clean" side of the filter. Ceramic water filters (CWF) may be treated with silver in a form that will not leach away. The silver helps to kill or incapacitate bacteria and prevent the growth of mold and algae in the body of the filter.

Ceramic filtration does not remove chemical contaminants per se. However, some manufacturers (especially of ceramic candle filters) incorporate a high-performance activated carbon core inside the ceramic filter cartridge that reduces organic & metallic contaminants. The active carbon absorbs compounds such as chlorine. Filters with active carbon need to be replaced periodically because the carbon becomes clogged with foreign material.

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Capillary Flow Porometers, Mercury Intrusion Porosimeter, BET Sorptometer Liquid Liquid Porometers

Related Publications

Ceramic Bulletin Ceramic Industry: A New Technique (doc) Ceramic Industry: A New Technique (pdf) Particle Size Analysis Pore Structure Multilayered Composites The Fastest Technique

Liquid-liquid porometer: H. Shi, F. Liu, and L Xue, “Fabrication and characterization of antibacterial PVDF hollow fibre membrane by doping Ag-loaded zeolites”, J. Membr. Sci., 437, 205 – 215 (2013)

Capillary flow porometer: A. Jena and K. Gupta, “An innovative technique for pore structure analysis of fuel cell and battery components using flow porometry”, 96, 214 – 219 (2001) D. Li, M. W. Frey, and Y. L. Joo, “Characterization of nanofibrous membranes with capillary flow porometry”, J. Membr. Sci., 286, 104 – 114 (2006)

Battery Separators

Battery is a device consisting of two or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Each cell has a positive terminal, or cathode, and a negative terminal, or anode. The terminal marked positive is at a higher electrical potential energy than is the terminal marked negative. The terminal marked negative is the source of electrons that when connected to an external circuit will flow and deliver energy to an external device. When a battery is connected to an external circuit, electrolytes are able to move as ions within, allowing the chemical reactions to be completed at the separate terminals and so deliver energy to the external circuit. It is the movement of those ions within the battery which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work.

Related Products

Capillary Flow Porometers, Mercury Intrusion Porosimeter, BET Sorptometer, Liquid Liquid Porometers

Related Publications

Liquid-liquid porometer: H. Shi, F. Liu, and L Xue, “Fabrication and characterization of antibacterial PVDF hollow fibre membrane by doping Ag-loaded zeolites”, J. Membr. Sci., 437, 205 – 215 (2013)

Capillary flow porometer: A. Jena and K. Gupta, “An innovative technique for pore structure analysis of fuel cell and battery components using flow porometry”, 96, 214 – 219 (2001) D. Li, M. W. Frey, and Y. L. Joo, “Characterization of nanofibrous membranes with capillary flow porometry”, J. Membr. Sci., 286, 104 – 114 (2006)

Fuel Cells

Related Products

Fuel Cell Porometer , Capillary Flow Porometers, Pycnometer, Gas Diffusion Permeameter

Related Publications

Fuel Cells R&D Fuel Cell-Conference: India Presentation Fuel Cell R&D: Promotional Material Fuel Cell Porometer Fuel Cell Seminar PMI Fuel Cell

Capillary Flow Porometer: A. Jena and K. Gupta, “An innovative technique for pore structure analysis of fuel cell and battery components using flow porometry”, 96, 214 – 219 (2001) D. Li, M. W. Frey, and Y. L. Joo, “Characterization of nanofibrous membranes with capillary flow porometry”, J. Membr. Sci., 286, 104 – 114 (2006)

Non Woven

Nonwoven fabric is a fabric-like material made from long fibers, bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment. The term is used in the textile manufacturing industry to denote fabrics, such as felt, which are neither woven nor knitted.[1] Some nonwoven materials lack sufficient strength unless densified or reinforced by a backing. In recent years, nonwovens have become an alternative to polyurethane foam.

Related Products

Geo Pore Pro Porometer, Capillary Flow Porometers, Gas Permeameter

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Average Fiber Diameters Nonwovens Effects of Compressive Stress on Pore Volume of Nonwovens Fast Evaluation Average Fiber Diameters INJ Pore Volume of Nanofiber Nonwovens Inplane Throughplane Nonwovens INTC Paper Liquid Extrusion